Infraorbital nerve injury may result in anesthesia or paresthesias of the cheek, nose, upper lip, and lower eyelid. Type A fractures are relatively uncommon.
Pathophysiology See Relevant Anatomy for a discussion of the impact of zygomaticomaxillary complex ZMC fractures on other facial structures. Compression of the orbital contents occurs less frequently.
This study is much easier to perform under general anesthesia. The zygomaticofrontal buttress is Zmc case studies strongest of the 4 ZMC buttresses.
The frontozygomatic and zygomaticosphenoidal buttresses are very strong. However, the term tetrapod fracture is a more accurate description because 4 suture lines are disrupted. These injuries are associated with an increased risk of optic nerve injury and visual loss.
Airway control and hemodynamic stability are the Zmc case studies concerns. The purpose of fixation is to restore the normal appearance of the face.
Women who have been domestically abused are more likely to suffer ZMC fractures and orbital blow-out fractures[ 2 ] while mandible fractures are more common when the female victim did not know the assailant. Finally, any overt globe injury should be evaluated. However, any of the extraocular muscles may be involved.
Isolated injuries often occur in the zygomatic arch because of its length and unprotected location. Evaluation of unanesthetized patients is often difficult because of poor patient cooperation. Cause[ edit ] The cause is usually a direct blow to the malar eminence of the cheek during assault.
Presentation The initial evaluation of facial trauma patients is focused on areas that can result in the greatest morbidity. Inferior hypophthalmos and posterior enophthalmos globe displacement both occur.
After the patient has been stabilized, a thorough history can be taken and physical examination can be performed. Incidence of ZMC fractures peaks in persons aged years. Type A3, B, and C injuries result in orbital floor disruption, which places the orbital contents at risk.
Relevant Anatomy The malar eminence is the most prominent portion of the zygomaticomaxillary complex ZMC and is located approximately 2 cm inferior to the lateral canthus. Prognosis A study by van Hout et al of unilateral ZMC fractures indicated that in cases of comminuted fractures, treatment outcomes were worse than those for either incomplete or tetrapod fractures.
Malar flattening and palpable periorbital step-offs, often occur. The zygomaticomaxillary buttress is commonly disrupted and associated with V2 paresthesias. Isolated injuries in these areas are uncommon.
Edema and contusion usually resolve without long-term sequelae; however, muscle entrapment does not resolve. In most cases, there is loss of sensation in the cheek and upper lip due to infraorbital nerve injury.
Facial bruising, periorbital ecchymosis, soft tissue gas, swelling, trismusaltered masticationdiplopiaand ophthalmoplegia are other indirect features of the injury. Information about the degree and severity of the overall injury can be extrapolated from the location of the fractures.
Concomitant NOE fractures predict a higher incidence of post operative deformity. The term ZMC fracture describes a spectrum of injuries that includes nondisplaced fractures, fractures displaced at an isolated buttress, and severely comminuted fractures Zmc case studies bone loss.In previous studies it was also noted that several other factors such as rage, psychological discomfort and Rahim Yar Khan.
Study Subjects: Case control of acute myocardial infarction admitted in CCU and controls selected from their age matched and attendants.
Study Design: Case Control Study Study. zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture: a modified surgical technique Jiawen Si *, Rong Ren, Minjiao Wang, Hongliang Li, Steve GF Shen, through the lateral eyebrow and gingival-buccal sulcus incisions in one displaced tripod ZMC fracture case.
Open spective studies of both Zingg et al and Hwang et al, tripod fractures formed about one. Case Studies Case Studies Success stories from ZRC Everyday we come across dozens of unique and interesting uses for our zinc rich coating technology.
We've prepared numerous case studies to highlight some of these applications. The zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, also known as a quadripod fracture, quadramalar fracture, and formerly referred to as a tripod fracture or trimalar fracture, has four components: the lateral orbital wall (at either the zygomaticofrontal suture superiorly along the wall or zygomaticosphenoid suture inferiorly), separation of the eMedicine: article/ Zhejiang Medicine Company (ZMC) is a large-scale pharmaceutical producer with roots in China dating back to the s.
Case Studies. You, our customer, are most important to us. We listen, assess and respond to your needs, as these case studies will show. Mar 14, · The zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) plays a key role in the structure, function, and aesthetic appearance of the facial skeleton.
It provides normal cheek contour and separates the orbital contents from the temporal fossa and the maxillary sinus.
The zygoma is the origin for the masseter, thus.Download