Counterfeit antibiotics with low doses of active ingredients are potentially more dangerous than counterfeited drugs containing no active ingredient at all and this may result to negative effect of drug resistance that may affect the entire community.
There was no reason for the Chinese to pay for the luxury of owning a Mattel Barbie doll when a cheap knock-off could be purchased for much less the cost.
The same idea happens with wines. For instance, in Nigeria such an offense is usually punished by imprisonment for periods ranging between 3 months to 5 years or alternatively a fine of US dollars Akunyili, One expert suggested that abolishing such a double standard could help to a large extent in combating the crime Reidenberg and Conner, Therefore, it is essential to take into account geographical, economic, legal and social criteria in order to interpret these percentages Newton, et al, An estimateddeaths annually are caused by fake antimalarials and tuberculous agents, suggesting that the total annual mortality due to the menace will definitely be much higher Harriset al.
Unlike developed nations with clear and strongly enforced laws on civil liability against suppliers or manufactures whose product causes harm Essay counterfeiting consumers, most of the poor countries afflicted with the problem of drug counterfeiting have laws in which civil liabilities are either not clearly defined or inadequately enforced.
Further findings have shown that developing countries are not merely the victims of the problem but also serve as the sources of counterfeit drugs with India and China being the biggest culprits globally Bate and Boateng, Cross River State is one of the 36 political administrative states in the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Ethical considerations The subjects will be briefed on the purpose of the study and consent will obtain from them to enroll into the study. No information will be changed or modify, hence the information will be presented as Essay counterfeiting and the same with the literatures collected for the purpose of this study.
According to NAFDAC in its definition of Counterfeit drugs included preparations without active ingredients, preparations that are toxic, expired drugs that are relabeled, drugs issued without complete manufacturing information and drugs that are not registered with the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control NAFDAC.
In each selected ward, simple random sampling technique will be employed to select 4 settlements using the lottery method. Those field assistant will present themselves as local buyers and follow the research protocol for obtaining drug samples based on the recommended sampling techniques.
It will then be vigorously mixed. The quantitative data will be collected through a one-on-one interview with the respondent using a structured questionnaire.
The first phase will include, mapping, enumeration of Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets while Numbers will be assigned to each Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets, folded and put in a polythene bag and then 10 persons will be blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement.
Therefore, it is not surprising that criminal gangs previously known to be involved in the narcotic trade usually switch to drug counterfeiting because they find it quite appealing and less risky.
Clearance and permit from communities and local authorities 4 weeks Research team 4. Also about people died in Niger following the administration of counterfeits of meningococcal-vaccines containing no active ingredient to some 60, people during the meningitis epidemic Cockburn Any subject who decline assent will be excluded from the study.
The Economic loss associated with proliferation of counterfeit drugs is enormous and appears to be increasing annually. Antibiotic resistance caused by drug counterfeiting might have contributed significantly to the inability to eradicate or control important infections such as malaria and tuberculosis in developing countries.
Available statistics have tried to propose figures on the exact percentage of counterfeit medicines within the worldwide pharmaceutical market. The state capital has one tertiary hospital, the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, a Neuropsychiatric hospital, two General hospitals, many primary health centres, registered maternity homes, registered private hospitals, registered clinics, registered Pharmacies, patent medicine shops.
Also as recent asdeaths in the US have been attributed to the use of adulterated heparin from China Harris et al. Finalize data collection tools 1 week Research team 8. However, there are currently little published work on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Nigeria including Knowledge, Attitude practice and no available research work in the study area.
Similarly, in South American countries, the penalty for such a crime is just six months in jail or a fine Bate and Boateng, Unfortunately, the penalty for manufacturing or distributing counterfeit drugs is very lenient in many developing countries. Their estimations reflect both the magnitude and the volatility of the problem: The state is made up of 1,47, males and 1, females.
The first 4 settlements picked will be recruited into the study i. Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies Abstract This study seeks to determine the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies, patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets and drug consumers in Cross River State.
Research has shown that counterfeit medicines is less spread in more developed countries due to a combination of enhanced legislation, stronger institutions and a more efficient regulatory control.
Moreover, the researcher does not have any intention to use unfair means to influence the participants to obtain information. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational qualification and years of experience has no effect on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in Calabar metropolis Literature review According to World Health Organization defined counterfeit drugs as drugs that have been deliberately or not well labeled with respect to identity and or source which makes it difficult to track the manufacturer of such drugs WHO, Thus, the seek out counterfeit goods that they can afford that still give of the same authentic look as the actual luxury brands.
Calabar is the capital of Cross River State. The major occupations of the people are trading, farming, fishing and civil service. WHO has estimate shows that counterfeit medicines would represent approximately ten percent of the entire amount of medicines worldwide WHO, Counterfeit medicines are widespread and represent a threat to public health which can lead to healthcare failures, such as resistance to antibiotics and the spread of disease within a community, as well as loss of life.Piracy, Counterfeiting, Patent Violation, The Price You Pay for Outsourcing China Piracy, Counterfeiting and Patent violation In this paper we will focus on piracy, counterfeiting and patent violation taking note of latest cases towards items such as in software, books, music and other related things.
Check out this Counterfeit Products essay paper. Buy exclusive Counterfeit Products essay cheap. Order Counterfeit Products essay from $ per page. I. Abstract. Counterfeiting money is a big business for criminals.
Nearly $70 million of fake currency gets used daily, costing consumers millions. Counterfeiting Counterfeiting is one of the oldest jobs in the world. Basically if there is a way of even trying people would do anything to make money and take advantage of the benefits of having money. Counterfeiting is illegal and purchasing counterfeit products supports illegal activity.
(IACC, ) Counterfeiters do not pay taxes meaning less money for your city's. Free Essay: Stephanie Villafranca FTT Professor Shephard 4/30/13 The Negative Effects of Counterfeiting Abstract Counterfeiting is an illegal action.Download